Wednesday, December 3, 2014

What are GMOs?




                                               What are GMOs

GMOs are genetically engineered foods made in laboratories owned by chemical companies.  The process of genetic engineering involves the insertion of genes from one species into the DNA of an unrelated species.  This is a very new process, which has not been around for thousands of years, as some from the biotech industry would like us to believe. In fact, genetic engineering is only about 20 years old. IT IS NOT THE SAME THING AS CROSS BREEDING OR HYBRIDIZATION.
Most of the traits that have been engineered into our foods are done so to create herbicide tolerant varieties and pesticide producing varieties. Herbicide tolerant crops are resistant to chemicals such as glyphosate, dicamba, and 2,4-D (a component of Agent Orange.)  Pest resistant (pesticide producing) varieties are engineered to contain a toxin in every cell of the crop that causes a bug’s stomach to explode when it tries to eat the plant.

When we eat these foods, we are ingesting the chemicals that were sprayed on the crops and/or the toxins engineered to kill. These substances are in 80% of the processed foods in America today. They are found in human blood, breast milk, and urine.  Glyphosate, the chemical sprayed on most of these crops, was recently granted a pass by the US EPA. The allowable levels on food were doubled.  To put this in perspective, soybean oil is now allowed to contain thousands of times the limit of glyphosate at which it can impact health.

The dramatic increase in the use of agrichemicals, such as glyphosate, correlates with a rise in more than 30 human diseases. Originally patented as a mineral chelator, glyphosate immobilizes nutrients, making them unavailable for the body. Glyphosate is also patented as an antibiotic that can devastate human gut bacteria. (Aka the micro biome, or the immune system.)

 What crops are genetically engineered/contain genetically modified organisms?
Herbicide tolerant:  sugar beets, rapeseed (canola), alfalfa.
Herbicide tolerant and pesticide producing: corn, soy, cotton.
Resistant to virus: Hawaiian papaya, zucchini, crookneck squash.
Corn:  There are hundreds of derivatives of corn found in processed foods, like maltodextrine, certain vitamins, and high fructose corn syrup.  For a complete list, download www.nongmoshoppingguide.com
Soy:  Soy containing products, such as soy lecithin, MSG, and soy protein isolate are just some of the ingredients in processed foods that are genetically modified.  For a complete list, download www.nongmoshoppingguide.com
Canola: This is a highly processed oil,(winterized, deodorized, bleached, genetically modified,  and chemically drenched) made from rapeseed.
Cotton: Cotton seeds are sprayed with the chemical hexane to expel oil, which is then used to cook things like potato chips, other fried foods, and is used to make man-made lard and margarine.
Sugar beets: This type of beet is used to make sugar. 50% of the sugar in products which list “sugar” on the label is comprised of genetically modified sugar beets.
Alfalfa: A perennial, alfalfa is used to feed grass-fed livestock. Since it has been genetically modified, 100% grass-fed meat may not be GMO free.
Russet potatoes: The newest crop to get USDA approval.


                                How did GMOs get into our food? 
In 1996 genetically engineered foods were secretly infiltrated into our food supply, without thorough safety investigations. 
 In fact, genetically modified foods were given GRAS status, (generally recognized as safe) even though they did not meet any of the criteria which is specified for products to meet GRAS status, in the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.  In other words, GMOs did not meet ANY of the criteria established by our government, to be Generally Recognized As Safe, but were  given GRAS status anyway, despite inadequate safety testing and warnings from FDA’s internal scientists.

1) They were not substances that have been around for hundreds of years, and

2) They had not gone through scientific, independent, thorough, peer reviewed, long term testing.

(The two requirements to meet GRAS status.)

The US Government was advised that GE foods were “substantially equivalent,” yet the EPA determined that GE corn was so FUNDAMENTALLY DIFFERENT, they decided that it must be regulated as a pesticide, and GE corn was given an EPA registration number.
At the same time, the US Patent and Trademark Office agreed to patent GMO seeds, (because the unique characteristics made them a novelty.) This enhanced and protected profitability.
Steven M. Druker, J.D., an attorney, sued the FDA for 44,000 sealed documents. These documents were written by internal FDA scientists concerned about the dangers of GMOs. Druker states that allowing these substances into the US food supply was/is illegal, based on these documents and the GRAS status they were given.


           What are the possible health risks associated with GMOs?
 Genetically Engineered foods have never been scientifically tested in human trials.
When animals fed GM foods and/or glyphosate, are studied by independent scientists for a period greater than three months however, results find damage to vital organs like the liver and kidneys, damage to gut tissues and gut flora, immune system disruption, reproductive abnormalities, and tumors. These scientific studies continue to be ignored by those who should be protecting us.
 ( Fagan F et al, Chapter 3 - Health Hazards of GM Foods and Chapter 4 - Health Hazards of Roundup and glyphosate, in GMO Myths & Truths: An evidence-based examination of the claims made for the safety and efficacy of genetically modified crops and foods, Earth Open Source, 2nd Ed, 2014)
There is also a strong correlation between the onset of GMOs into our food supply and the rapid rise in many health problems including: food allergies, autism, ADHD, asthma, infertility, stage II diabetes, obesity, birth defects, inflammatory bowel disease and cancer.  Without labeling, these correlations can not be proven. We must have GMO foods labeled so that we can trace and hold accountable what may very well be causing such a rapid rise in debilitating health trends.
Currently, the FDA, EPA, and USDA rely on outdated studies and other information funded and supplied by chemical companies that, not surprisingly, dismiss all health concerns. (These companies profit from the sale of the GM seeds as well as the sale of the pesticides that the seeds are resistant to.)
                                              
                               Countries that ban or label GMOS:
Currently 64 countries ban or require labeling of foods containing GMOs. These countries include member nations of the European Union, Russia, China, Brazil, Australia, Turkey and South Africa.
 For a complete list of countries that ban or require labeling, please consult The Center For Food Safety’s website:  http://www.centerforfoodsafety.org/issues/976/ge-food-labeling/international-labeling-laws


Suggested resources to learn more about GMOs:

BooksSeeds of Deception by Jeffrey Smith, Organic Manifesto by Marie Rodale, Genetically Altered Foods and Your Health, by Ken Roseboro, GMO Myths and Truths, by Michael Antonio, Claire Robinson, and John Fagan.

State initiatives and Facebook Pages:  GMO Free USA, GMO Free CT(and other states,) 

Movies:  Genetic Roulette, Seeds of Deception, GMO OMG, Deconstructing Supper, Food Inc., The World According to Monsanto, Seeds of Death, Seeds of Destruction
                     








Sunday, November 23, 2014

How to Avoid Eating Genetically Engineered Ingredients

The easiest way to avoid GMOs is to purchase  products labeled "Non GMO Project Verified."  However many of these products, although not GMO, are still sprayed with glyphosate, to dry them out right before harvest. Three of the biggest culprits are wheat, sugar cane, and tea.  If you want to avoid GMOs AND glyphosate (as well as dicamba and 2,4-D (1/2 of Agent Orange) ) choose USDA ORGANIC.

Below is more specific information on avoiding GMOs:


Meat:  Organic meat is expensive.  Serve much smaller portions of meat and increase the vegetables significantly.

“Vegetarian fed” meat means the cows were fed GMO corn, soy, and alfalfa.   The healthiest beef is 100% grass fed, AND organic. (Organic cows can’t be fed GMO alfalfa, 100% grass fed cows can.)  Grass-fed animal protein is higher in CLA – conjugated linoleic acid- that may help prevent cancer.

It is possible to find grass fed meat of all kinds, but make sure you ask for 100% grass fed/organic and avoid “vegetarian fed.”

Poultry:  The healthiest poultry is allowed to graze on pasture eating bugs and getting sun.  Chicken that is “cooped up” in tiny cages, and fed GM corn and soy should be avoided.

Organic free range chicken is the next best choice.

Fish: Buy wild caught fish, not farmed fish.

Eggs:  The best eggs come from chickens that are pastured.  Local farmers may sell them, but you must ask them if their feed is organic.  If it is not organic, the chickens are getting GM corn and soy as their food.  Organic, cage free eggs from the store are the next best choice.

Peanut Butter:  Luckily, peanuts are not yet GMO.  But the oils mixed into peanut butter may be.  It is best to buy organic peanut butter to avoid the trans fat that is a component of typical peanut butter. Also, since peanuts are rotated with cotton, which is gmo and sprayed with glyphosate, it is best to avoid non-organic peanut butter, in case the soil they were grown in contains glyphosate from the previous year’s cotton spraying.  Make sure that the only ingredients are peanuts and salt.

Other nut butters:  It is best to buy organic nut butters. It is easy to make; soak nuts first to increase the nutrient content. Then roast, and puree.

Cheese:  Make sure the label states “from cows not injected with bovine growth hormone” (RBST)   Also, if the cheese is organic, this means the cows were not given GM feed.  Cheeses from Europe that are not organic are less likely to be from GM fed animals, but in April 2013 many UK supermarkets abandoned their long-standing non-GM feed policies. Europe does accept imported GMO animal feed.   American-made cheese will most likely come from GM fed animals, unless it is organic. Also, the rennet used to coagulate the cheese is usually genetically modified. (Although European cheese makers don't use the type of rennet that is GMO for domestic use, they do use it for cheese to be shipped to America, because it is cheaper.)  Bottom line, buy organic cheese whenever possible. 

Fats:  Healthy fats include organic butter, (pasture butter is even better), olive oil, (the regulation in this industry is very poor and often olive oil is cut with cheaper oils such as corn, soy or canola, so to be sure use organic olive oil, or purchase from a quality vendor. Many olive oils are now labeled “non- gmo project verified.” See the book, Extra Virginity,  by Tom Mueller, for more information.) Other healthy oils include grape seed oil, sesame oil, avocado oil,  organic peanut oil, coconut oil, safflower oil, sunflower oil.

A very healthy oil to saute with is called “Mary’s oil Blend.”  It is made by combining 1/3 olive oil, 1/3 coconut oil, and 1/3 sesame oil.  It was developed by a lipid chemist named Mary Enig, PhD, an authority on fats and fat metabolism.  For great information on fat, google her.  If you’re concerned about eating saturated fats, google: “The Oiling of America, by Mary Enig.”

Avoid margarine, vegetable oil, and vegetable shortening.  These are all heavily pesticided, genetically modified, processed oils, and usually contain trans fat.

Breads Choose organic whole grain bread.  Most whole wheat bread that is not organic contains high fructose corn syrup. Sprouted wheat bread is another excellent choice. Avoid white bleached flour that injures the pancreas, and often contains unnecessary additives that are GMO.  Organic cereal is a must to avoid GM corn.

Fruits and Vegetables: Currently the only fruits and vegetables that are genetically modified include some zucchini, crookneck squash, Hawaiian papaya, and sugar beets. (“Sugar” on a label, is usually 50% GMO sugar beets.  Insist on 100% organic cane sugar, since conventional cane sugar is sprayed with glyphosate to dry it out before harvesting.  The same is true for wheat and tea. ) 



Wednesday, November 12, 2014

There will be no trans fats in Heaven

"It is with great sadness that we announce the loss of Mary Enig, PhD.
Mary was a founding board member of the Weston A. Price Foundation and for several years a board member emeritus.
She was a driving force in the move to alert the public to the dangers of trans fatty acids, contributor to Nourishing Traditions, co-author of Eat Fat Lose Fat, author of Trans Fatty Acids in the Food Supply and Know Your Fats, and a frequent contributor to the Wise Traditions Know Your Fats column."

This announcement came from the Weston Price Foundation last week, and has saddened me. Mary was a mentor to me and under her supervision, I was able to obtain 50 continuing education credits to maintain my registration as a registered dietitian. 

During the time I  worked with her, one of the most profound things she said was: " I was present at the National Cholesterol Consensus Conference when they decided to make 200mg/dl  the cutoff.  The way they decided on 200 as the magic number was because they worried that if they made it 240 or 260, there wouldn't be enough people in the study and they wouldn't get their government funding."

So there you have it - you go to the doctor and get told your cholesterol is 201 and you need to be on a statin drug so you won't have a heart attack.  All because of that magic number; profound...

It never made sense to me and it never made sense to Mary.  I was so lucky to have found her book, Know Your Fats, which rocked my dietitian's world.

Mary had a PhD in lipid chemistry.  She was brilliant and brave. It is because of Mary Enig that I practice nutrition the way that I do; NEVER recommending vegetable oils like corn, soy, canola, or cottonseed, and always encouraging God's fats: butter, coconut oil, olive oil, and other saturated or monounsaturated oils.

Letter from America to the EU and UK about letting GMOs into their country.



With GMO agriculture, a walk in the countryside could be like this in the future. Photo: Liam Wilde via Flickr.
With GMO agriculture, a walk in the countryside could be like this in the future. Photo: Liam Wilde via Flickr.
More articles about
EU | UK | USA | GMOs | farming | corporations | health
Related Articles
  • Delivering the Open Letter to the prime minister at Downign Street this morning.
    Delivering the Open Letter to the prime minister at Downign Street this morning.


Here is a powerful, provocative, and well researched/annotated letter written and signed by some  very important and powerful groups and US citizens! It asks the EU and UK NOT to let GMOs into their countries without careful consideration about what it did in the US.





Living with GMOs - a letter from America

The Undersigned
12th November 2014

NGOs, scientists, anti-GM groups, celebrities, food manufacturers, and others representing 57 million Americans today publish an Open Letter to the UK and the entire EU warning of the serious and manifold hazards of GMO crops - and promising their support in our fight against them.

Today in the US, from seed to plate, the production, distribution, marketing, safety testing, and consumption of food is controlled by a handful of companies, many of which have commercial interests in genetic engineering technology.
We are writing as concerned American citizens to share with you our experience of genetically modified (GM) crops and the resulting damage to our agricultural system and adulteration of our food supply.
In our country, GM crops account for about half of harvested cropland. Around 94% of the soy, 93% of corn (maize) and 96% of cotton grown is GM. i
The UK and the rest of the EU have yet to adopt GM crops in the way that we have, but you are currently under tremendous pressure from governments, biotech lobbyists, and large corporations to adopt what we now regard as a failing agricultural technology.
Polls consistently show that 72% of Americans do not want to eat GM foods and over 90% of Americans believe GM foods should be labeled.ii
In spite of this massive public mandate, efforts to get our federal iii and state iv governments to better regulate, or simply label, GMOs are being undermined by large biotech and food corporations with unlimited budgets v and undue influence.
As you consider your options, we'd like to share with you what nearly two decades of GM crops in the United States has brought us. We believe our experience serves as a warning for what will happen in your countries should you follow us down this road.
Broken promises
GM crops were released onto the market with a promise that they would consistently increase yields and decrease pesticide use. They have done neither. vi In fact, according to a recent US government report yields from GM crops can be lower than their non-GM equivalents. vii
Farmers were told that GM crops would yield bigger profits too. The reality, according to the United States Department of Agriculture, is different. viii Profitability is highly variable, while the cost of growing these crops has spiraled. ix
GM seeds cannot legally be saved for replanting, which means farmers must buy new seeds each year. Biotech companies control the price of seeds, which cost farmers 3-6 times more than conventional seeds. x This, combined with the huge chemical inputs they require, means GM crops have proved more costly to grow than conventional crops.
Because of the disproportionate emphasis on GM crops, conventional seed varieties are no longer widely available leaving farmers with less choice and control over what they plant. xi
Farmers who have chosen not to grow GM crops can find their fields contaminated with GM crops as a result of cross pollination between related species of plants xii and GM and non-GM seeds being mixed together during storage.
Because of this our farmers are losing export markets. Many countries have restrictions or outright bans on growing or importing GM crops xiii and as a result, these crops have become responsible for a rise in trade disputes when shipments of grain are found to be contaminated with GM organisms (GMOs). xiv
The burgeoning organic market here in the US is also being affected. Many organic farmers have lost contracts for organic seed due to high levels of contamination. This problem is increasing and is expected to get much bigger in the coming years.
Pesticides and superweeds
The most widely grown types of GM crops are known as 'Roundup Ready' crops. These crops, mostly corn and soy, have been genetically engineered so that when they are sprayed with the herbicide Roundup - the active ingredient of which is glyphosate - the weeds die but the crop continues to grow.
This has created a vicious circle. Weeds have become resistant to the herbicide, causing farmers to spray even more. Heavier use of herbicides creates ever more 'superweeds' and even higher herbicide use.
A recent review found that between 1996 and 2011, farmers who planted Roundup Ready crops used 24% more herbicide than non-GMO farmers planting the same crops. xv
If we remain on this trajectory with Roundup Ready crops we can expect to see herbicide rates increase by 25% each year for the foreseeable future.
This pesticide treadmill means that in the last decade in the US at least 14 new glyphosate-resistant weed species have emerged, xvi and over half of US farms are plagued with herbicide-resistant weeds. xvii
Biotech companies, which sell both the GM seeds and the herbicides, xviii have proposed to address this problem with the creation of new crop varieties that will be able to withstand even stronger and more toxic herbicides such as 2,4-D and dicamba.
However it is estimated that if these new varieties are approved, this could drive herbicide use up by as much as 50%. xix
Environmental harm
Studies have shown that the increased herbicide use on Roundup Ready crops is highly destructive to the natural environment. For example, Roundup kills milkweeds, which are the key food source for the iconic Monarch butterfly xx and poses a threat to other important insects such as bees. xxi
It is also damaging to soil, killing beneficial organisms that keep it healthy and productivexxii and making essential micronutrients unavailable to the plant. xxiii
Other types of GM plants, which have been engineered to produce their own insecticide (e.g. "Bt" cotton plants), have also been shown to harm beneficial insects including green lacewings xxiv, the Daphnia magna waterflea xxv and other aquatic insects, xxvi and ladybugs (ladybirds). xxvii
Resistance to the insecticides in these plants is also growing xxviii, creating new varieties of resistant "superbugs" and requiring more applications of insecticides at different points in the growth cycle, for instance on the seed before it is planted. xxix In spite of this, new Bt varieties of corn and soy have been approved here and will soon be planted.
A threat to human health
GM ingredients are everywhere in our food chain. It is estimated that 70% of processed foods consumed in the US have been produced using GM ingredients. If products from animals fed GM feed are included, the percentage is significantly higher.
Research shows that Roundup Ready crops contain many times more glyphosate, and its toxic breakdown product AMPA, than normal crops. xxx
Traces of glyphosate have been found in the breastmilk and urine of American mothers, as well as in their drinking water. xxxi The levels in breastmilk were worryingly high - around 1,600 times higher than what is allowable in European drinking water.
Passed on to babies through breastmilk, or the water used to make formula, this could represent an unacceptable risk to infant health since glyphosate is a suspected hormone disrupter. xxxii Recent studies suggest that this herbicide is also toxic to sperm. xxxiii
Likewise, traces of the Bt toxin have been found in the blood of mothers and their babies.xxxiv
GM foods were not subjected to human trials before being released into the food chain and the health impacts of having these substances circulating and accumulating in our bodies are not being studied by any government agency, nor by the companies that produce them.
Studies of animals fed GM foods and/or glyphosate, however, show worrying trends including damage to vital organs like the liver and kidneys, damage to gut tissues and gut flora, immune system disruption, reproductive abnormalities, and even tumors. xxxv
These scientific studies point to potentially serious human health problems that could not have been anticipated when our country first embraced GMOs, and yet they continue to be ignored by those who should be protecting us.
Instead our regulators rely on outdated studies and other information funded and supplied by biotech companies that, not surprisingly, dismiss all health concerns.
A denial of science
This spin of corporate science stands in stark contrast to the findings of independent scientists.
In fact, in 2013, nearly 300 independent scientists from around the world issued a public warning that there was no scientific consensus about the safety of eating genetically modified food, and that the risks, as demonstrated in independent research, gave "serious cause for concern." xxxvi
It's not easy for independent scientists like these to speak out. Those who do have faced obstacles in publishing their results, been systematically vilified by pro-GMO scientists, been denied research funding, and in some cases have had their jobs and careers threatened. xxxvii
Control of the food supply
Through our experience we have come to understand that the genetic engineering of food has never really been about public good, or feeding the hungry, or supporting our farmers. Nor is it about consumer choice. Instead it is about private, corporate control of the food system.
This control extends into areas of life that deeply affect our day-to-day well-being, including food security, science, and democracy. It undermines the development of genuinely sustainable, environmentally friendly agriculture and prevents the creation of a transparent, healthy food supply for all.
Today in the US, from seed to plate, the production, distribution, marketing, safety testing, and consumption of food is controlled by a handful of companies, many of which have commercial interests in genetic engineering technology.
They create the problems, and then sell us the so-called solutions in a closed cycle of profit generation that is unequalled in any other type of commerce.
We all need to eat, which is why every citizen should strive to understand these issues.
Time to speak out!
Americans are reaping the detrimental impacts of this risky and unproven agricultural technology. EU countries should take note: there are no benefits from GM crops great enough to offset these impacts. Officials who continue to ignore this fact are guilty of a gross dereliction of duty.
We, the undersigned, are sharing our experience and what we have learned with you so that you don't make our mistakes.
We strongly urge you to resist the approval of genetically modified crops, to refuse to plant those crops that have been approved, to reject the import and/or sale of GM-containing animal feeds and foods intended for human consumption, and to speak out against the corporate influence over politics, regulation and science.
If the UK and the rest of Europe becomes the new market for genetically modified crops and food our own efforts to label and regulate GMOs will be all the more difficult, if not impossible. If our efforts fail, your attempts to keep GMOs out of Europe will also fail.
If we work together, however, we can revitalize our global food system, ensuring healthy soil, healthy fields, healthy food and healthy people.



See below for Signatories - NGOs, academics, scientists, anti-GM groups, celebrities, food manufacturers, and others representing around 57 million Americans.
References
i  Adoption of Genetically Engineered Crops in the US 1996-2014 - Recent Trends in GE Adoption, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), July 2014,http://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/adoption-of-genetically-engineered-crops-in-the-us/recent-trends-in-ge-adoption.aspx#.U9aA4fldUz0
ii Consumer Support for Standardization and Labeling of Genetically Engineered Food 2014 Nationally‐Representative Phone Survey, Consumer Reports® National Research Center Survey Research Report, https://consumersunion.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/2014_GMO_survey_report.pdf ; see also Brinkerhoff N, Americans overwhelmingly want GMO labelling...until big companies pour money into election campaigns, AllGov News, January 7, 2014 http://www.allgov.com/news/where-is-the-money-going/americans-overwhelmingly-want-gmo-labelinguntil-big-companies-pour-money-in-election-campaigns-140107?news=852102
iii  GE Food Labelling: States Take Action, Fact Sheet, Center for Food Safety, June 2014,http://www.centerforfoodsafety.org/files/ge-state-labeling-fact-sheet-620141_28179.pdf
iv  ibid
v  Jargon J and Berry I, Dough Rolls Out to Fight 'Engineered' Label on Food, Wall Street journal, October 25, 2012,http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052970203400604578073182907123760
vi  Benbrook C. Evidence of the magnitude and consequences of the Roundup Ready soybean yield drag from university-based varietal trials in 1998: Ag BioTech InfoNet Technical Paper Number 1. Sandpoint, Idaho; 1999, http://www.mindfully.org/GE/RRS-Yield-Drag.htm; see also Elmore RW, Roeth FW, Nelson LA, et al. Glyphosate-resistant soyabean cultivar yields compared with sister lines. Agron J, 2001;93:408-412; see also Ma BL, Subedi KD. Development, yield, grain moisture and nitrogen uptake of Bt corn hybrids and their conventional near-isolines. Field Crops Res. 2005; 93: 199-211; see also Bennett H. GM canola trials come a cropper. WA Business News.http://www.wabusinessnews.com.au/en-story/1/69680/GM-canola-trials-come-a-cropperJanuary 16, 2009; see also Gurian-Sherman D. Failure to yield: Evaluating the performance of genetically engineered crops. Cambridge, MA: Union of Concerned Scientists; 2009. Available at:http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/food_and_agriculture/failure-to-yield.pdf
vii  Genetically Engineered Crops in the United States, USDA, Economic Research Services, February 2014 http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/err-economic-research-report/err162.aspx#.U7vzi7Hrzbx
viii  Fernandez-Cornejo J, Wechsler S, Livingston M, Mitchell L. Genetically engineered crops in the United States. Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture; 2014. Available at:http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/err-economic-research-report/err162.aspx#.U0P_qMfc26x
ix  Fernandez-Cornejo J, McBride WD. The adoption of bioengineered crops. Agricultural Economic Report No. 810. Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture; 2002,http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/aer810/aer810.pdf; see also Gómez-Barbero M, Rodríguez-Cerezo E. Economic impact of dominant GM crops worldwide: A review. European Commission Joint Research Centre: Institute for Prospective Technological Studies; 2006, http://ftp.jrc.es/EURdoc/eur22547en.pdf; see also Benbrook CM. Impacts of genetically engineered crops on pesticide use in the United States: The first thirteen years. Washington, DC: The Organic Center; 2009. Available at: http://www.organic-center.org/reportfiles/13Years20091126_FullReport.pdf; see also Howard P. Visualizing consolidation in the global seed industry: 1996-2008. Sustainability. 2009; 1: 1266-87; see also Neuman W. Rapid rise in seed prices draws US scrutiny, New York Times, March 11, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/12/business/12seed.html?_r=1.
x  Benbrook CM. The magnitude and impacts of the biotech and organic seed price premium. Washington, DC: The Organic Center; 2009. Available at: http://www.organic-center.org/reportfiles/Seeds_Final_11-30-09.pdf
xi  Roseboro K, The GMO Seed Monopoly: Reducing Farmer's Seed Options, Organic Connections, 16 April 2013 http://organicconnectmag.com/wp/the-gmo-seed-monopoly-reducing-farmers-seed-options/#.UW6i4LVllfY
xii  D'Hertefeldt T, Jørgensen RB, Pettersson LB. Long-term persistence of GM oilseed rape in the seedbank. Biol Lett. 2008;4:314-317; see also Gilbert N. GM crop escapes into the American wild. Nature. 2010. Available at: http://www.nature.com/news/2010/100806/full/news.2010.393.html; see also Black R. GM plants "established in the wild", BBC News, August 6, 2010,http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-10859264.
xiii  The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity.http://bch.cbd.int/protocol/default.shtml; see also GMO-Free Europe, http://www.gmo-free-regions.org
xiv  Technical consultation on low levels of genetically modified (GM) crops in international food and feed trade, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy March 21-22, 2014,http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/agns/topics/LLP/AGD803_4_Final_En.pdf
xv  Benbrook CM, Impacts of genetically engineered crops on pesticide use in the US - the first sixteen years, Environmental Sciences Europe2012; 24: 24 doi:10.1186/2190-4715-24-24
xvi  USDA 2014, op cit
xvii  The Rise of Superweeds - and What to Do About It, Union of Concerned Scientists, Policy Brief, December 2013,http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/food_and_agriculture/rise-of-superweeds.pdf
xviii  Superweeds - How biotech crops bolster the pesticide industry, Food & Water Watch, July 2013http://documents.foodandwaterwatch.org/doc/Superweeds.pdf#_ga=1.262673807.2090293938.1404747885
xix  Benbrook CM, 2012, ibid
xx  Brower LP, Decline of monarch butterflies overwintering in Mexico: is the migratory phenomenon at risk?, Insect Conservation and Diversity, Volume 5, Issue 2, pages 95-100, March 2012, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1752-4598.2011.00142.x/full
xxi  Garcia, MA and Altieri M, Transgenic Crops: Implications for Biodiversity and Sustainable Agriculture. Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, 2005; 25(4) 335-53 DOI: 10.1177/0270467605277293; see also Haughton, A J et al Invertebrate responses to the management of genetically modified herbicidetolerant
and conventional spring crops. II.Within-field epigeal and aerial arthropods. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 2003; 358: 1863-77; see also Roy, DB et al Invertebrates and vegetation of
field margins adjacent to crops subject to contrasting herbicide regimes in the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 2003; 358: 1879-98.
xxii  Glyphosate herbicide affects belowground interactions between earthworms and symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi in a model ecosystem. Nature Scientific Reports, July 9, 2014, 4: 5634, DOI: doi:10.1038/srep05634; Citizens Concerned About GM, Suffocating the soil: An "unanticipated effect" of GM crops, 15 March 2013,http://www.gmeducation.org/environment/p207351-suffocating-the-soil:-anunanticipated-effectof-gm-crops.html
xxiii  Tapesser B et al, Agronomic and environmental aspects of the cultivation of genetically modified herbicide-resistant plants A joint paper of BfN (Germany), FOEN (Switzerland) and EAA (Austria), Bonn, Germany 2014,http://www.bfn.de/fileadmin/MDB/documents/service/skript362.pdf.
xxiv  Tapesser B et al, 2014, op cit
xxv  Tapesser B et al, 2014, op cit
xxvi  Rossi-Marshall EJ et al, Toxins in transgenic crop byproducts may affect headwater stream ecosystems, PNAS, 2007, 104(41): 16204-16208,http://www.pnas.org/content/104/41/16204.abstract
xxvii  Tapesser B et al, 2014 op cit; see also Schmidt JEU, Braun CU, Whitehouse LP, Hilbeck A: Effects of activated Bt transgene products (Cry1Ab, Cry3Bb) on immature stages of the ladybird Adalia bipunctata in laboratory ecotoxicity testing, Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2009, 56:221-228, http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00244-008-9191-9.
xxviii  Gassmann AJ et al, Field-evolved resistance by western corn rootworm to multipleBacillus thuringiensis toxins in transgenic maize, Proc Natl Acad Sci, 2014 ; 111(14): 5141-46, http://www.pnas.org/content/111/14/5141; see also Letter from 22 Members and Participants of North Central Coordinating Committee NCCC46 and Other Corn Entomologists to US EPA, March 5, 2012, http://www.biosicherheit.de/pdf/aktuell/12-03_comment_porter_epa.pdf ; see also Huang F et al, Resistance of sugarcane borer to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin, Entomol Exp Appl, 2007; 124: 117-23,http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1570-7458.2007.00560.x/abstract;jsessionid=77E6295826AFA053813D7CFD5A1C15DB.f01t01?deniedAccessCustomisedMessage=&userIsAuthenticated=false ; see also Tabashnik BE, et al, Insect resistance to Bt crops: Evidence versus theory, Nat Biotechnol, 2008; 26: 199-202,http://www.cof.orst.edu/cof/teach/agbiotox/Readings%202008/TabashnikBtResistInsects-NatBiotech-2008.pdf.
xxix  Leslie TW, Biddinger DJ, Mullin CA, Fleischer SJ. Carabidae population dynamics and temporal partitioning: Response to coupled neonicotinoid-transgenic technologies in maize, Env Entomol, 2009; 38: 935-43; see also Gurian-Sherman D. Genetically engineered crops in the real world - Bt corn, insecticide use, and honey bees. The Cornucopia Institute, January 13, 2012. http://www.cornucopia.org/2012/01/genetically-engineered-crops-in-the-real-world-bt-corn-insecticide-use-and-honey-bees
xxx  Bohn T et al, Compositional differences in soybeans on the market: Glyphosate accumulates in Roundup Ready GM soybeans, Food Chemistry, 2014 ; 153: 207-15;
xxxi  Glyphosate testing report: Findings in American mothers' breast milk, urine and water. Mom's Across America, April 7, 2014,http://d3n8a8pro7vhmx.cloudfront.net/yesmaam/pages/774/attachments/original/1396803706/Glyphosate__Final__in_the_breast_milk_of_American_women_Draft6_.pdf?1396803706
xxxii  Gasnier C, et al, Glyphosate-based herbicides are toxic and endocrine disruptors in human cell lines, Toxicology, 2009; 262: 184-91. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2009.06.006; see also Hokanson R, et al, Alteration of estrogen-regulated gene expression in human cells induced by the agricultural and horticultural herbicide glyphosate, Hum Exp Toxicol, 2007; 26: 747-52. doi:10.1177/0960327107083453; see also Thongprakaisang S, et al, Glyphosate induces human breast cancer cells growth via estrogen receptors, Food Chem Toxicol, 2013; 59: 129-136. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2013.05.057.
xxxiii  Cassault-Meyer E et al, An acute exposure to glyphosate-based herbicide alters aromatase levels in testis and sperm nuclear quality, Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 2014; 38(1): 131-40.
xxxiv  Aris A and Leblanc S, Maternal and fetal exposure to pesticides associated to genetically modified foods in Eastern Townships of Quebec, Canada, Reproductive Toxicology, 2011; 31(4): 528-533.
xxxv  Fagan F et al, Chapter 3 - Health Hazards of GM Foods and Chapter 4 - Health Hazards of Roundup and glyphosate, in GMO Myths & Truths: An evidence-based examination of the claims made for the safety and efficacy of genetically modified crops and foods, Earth Open Source, 2nd Ed, 2014
xxxvi  Statement: No scientific consensus on GMO safety, European Network of Scientists for Social and Environmental Responsibility, October 21, 2013,http://www.ensser.org/increasing-public-information/no-scientific-consensus-on-gmo-safety.
xxxvii  Smith, J, GMO Researchers Attacked, Evidence Denied, and a Population at Risk, Global Research, September 19, 2012 http://www.globalresearch.ca/gmo-researchers-attacked-evidence-denied-and-a-population-at-risk/5305324; see also Waltz E, GM crops: Battlefield, Nature, 2009; 461, 27-32 doi:10.1038/461027a; see also Woodward L, Muzzled by Monsanto, Citizens Concerned About GM, May 4, 2014,http://www.gmeducation.org/blog/p217611-muzzled-by-monsanto.html
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